Saturday, 19 January, 2019

University of Missouri Scientist shares Nobel Chemistry Prize

Melissa Porter | 04 October, 2018, 08:45

Professor George Smith, one of the three recipients of this year's Nobel Prize for chemistry, is a staunch critic of Israel and Zionism, a fact that has pro-Israeli media fuming.

The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences said Arnold had transformed science by using the principles of evolution - genetic change and selection - and to evolve new types of proteins very fast.

Two Americans and one Briton have won the 2018 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for developing new processes used to create drugs, chemicals and biofuels.

After obtaining her undergraduate degree in mechanical engineering from Princeton in 1979, Arnold worked briefly in Golden, Colorado, at the Solar Energy Research Institute - now the National Renewable Energy Laboratory - before enrolling in Berkeley's chemical engineering department to work with Blanch on biofuels. The scientists used evolutionary techniques in the laboratory to create powerful biological enzymes, molecules that speed up chemical reactions, and other important molecules.

Scientists won for research using directed evolution to produce enzymes for new chemicals and pharmaceuticals.

The Nobel Prize in chemistry has been awarded since 1901 and can include up to three different laureates.

Smith, 77, and Winter, 67, worked with viruses called phages that infect bacteria. Today, phage display of antibodies can be used to treat diseases as varied as metastatic cancer, inflammatory bowel diseases and anthrax poisoning.

Other antibodies produced by this approach fight cancer, neutralize the anthrax toxin and slow down lupus, the Swedish academy said. The academy plans to announce both the 2018 and the 2019 victor next year - although the head of the Nobel Foundation has said the body must fix its tarnished reputation first.

The Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, honouring the man who endowed the five Nobel Prizes, will be revealed on Monday.

She spoke to Reuters after hearing that she had won the Nobel Prize.

No literature prize will be awarded this year, but the Swedish Academy that awards the prestigious prize is still in the limelight.

"There is also a growing, and concerning, area of society, who contemporary politicians and social media are allowing to propagate old-fashioned and sexist views", she said.

He built up a collection of phages, with billions of antibody varieties on their surface, and engineered them make them more effective. That made it possible to develop, for example, new kinds of fuels derived from plants, new processes for making industrial chemicals without toxic metals or organic solvents, and new pharmaceuticals.

"My sense is that women often work towards the collective good and often may sacrifice their individual career for advancing the community", she said.

The medicine prize was awarded Monday to American and Japanese researchers.

"Chemistry is filled with brilliant women, so I think we'll see a steady stream of Nobel prizes awarded to women", says Arnold. These scientists were selected for their groundbreaking inventions in the field of laser physics.

Strickland is an associate professor of physics at the University of Waterloo in Canada, and many have noted that her academic rank does not appear to reflect the significance of her work.