In a closely-fought qualifying session amongst the top three teams, Vettel rose above the parapet to clinch his 54th pole position, beating Mercedes' Valtteri Bottas to the top spot by less than a tenth of a second.
Verstappen, who made a sensational teenage arrival in F1 with a victory on his debut with Red Bull at the 2016 Spanish Grand Prix, crashed in practice at the Monaco Grand Prix two weeks ago and had to start from the back of the grid. Vettel's best lap time of one minute 10.776 seconds bested the record of 1:11.459 set previous year by Mercedes ace Lewis Hamilton. And I don't need to change my approach - it's just a little bit more finesse I guess. In the Constructors' Championship, Mercedes leads with 178 points, Ferrari is second with 156 points and Red Bull is third with 107 points. "The vehicle was working well, but we are still lacking a bit of top speed and you could see that in the long runs".
Mercedes, who chose not to introduce their new upgraded power units in Montreal and struggled to extract the best from the "hyper-soft" tyre, saw Hamilton struggle to find the form that has enabled him to dominate in the past.
A smoking start to qualifying as Romain Grosjean's Haas started off by spewing oil all over the place, resulting in a massive cloud all over the pit lane. "I was a lot happier with the vehicle and I think we can carry that into the race. Starting on the softer tyre is a benefit as it's quite slippery on track and in the race I think we'll be competitive".
The Red Bull has looked quick all weekend and Verstappen believes his auto will be better in the race especially as they are starting on the soft tyre.
Verstappen arrived in Montreal under attack from all corners, after an incident-filled start to the season in which the 20-year-old reach the podium once in six races, while Ricciardo has recorded a pair of wins.
It was the second time this season Verstappen has failed to finish.
"I'm getting really exhausted of all the questions", said the 20-year-old, who has fewer than half the points of Red Bull team-mate Daniel Ricciardo ahead of Sunday's Canadian Grand Prix.
Mercedes were first out in Q3 and smashed the records, Bottas topping Hamilton in 1:10.857 before Vettel beat that.