The five-time grand slam champion needed only an hour and four minutes to wrap up a 6-3 6-1 victory on Friday.
The former world number one, targeting a first title since returning to the tour in April, raced to a 4-0 lead in the second set as an error-prone Voegele struggled on serve.
After rain interrupted the opening days of the tournament, Sharapova said: "It's been a long wait for everyone, it hasn't been easy".
Linette was dispatched by Sharapova in straight sets 5-7, 3-6.
"The good thing about this tournament is it has indoors, it's pretty state-of-the-art, and I trained at the National Tennis Centre as well, which was very impressive". The Swiss defeated fifth seed Yulia Putintseva of Kazakhstan 6-2 6-3.
In the semifinals, Sharapova will play the victor of the match between Sara Sorribes Tormo of Spain and No.3 seed Peng Shuai, the defending champion and hometown heroine.
Maria Sharapova cruised to the second semifinal of the year at the Tianjin Open.
Switzerland's Stefanie Voegele, Chinese Taipei's Su-Wei Hsieh and China's Xiyu Wang also advanced with straight-set wins on Wednesday.
Aryna Sabalenka claimed the tenth WTA main draw victory this season as she beat Lin Zhu 6-3 6-4 to reach the second career semifinal at WTA-level after the defeat suffered to Timea Babos at Tashkent earlier this year.
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