Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease. The hazard ratio comparing all-cause mortality in patients with type 1 diabetes compared to controls was 1.08 (95%CI 0.99 to 1.18; p = 0.09).
This study is the first ever to estimate trends in new diagnosed cases of type 1 and type 2 diabetes in youth (those under the age of 20), from the five major racial/ethnic groups in the USA: non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks, Hispanics, Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders, and Native Americans. Each person with diabetes was matched with a control for age and sex. The vast majority of those have type 2 diabetes.
Type 1 diabetes is the most common type of diabetes in kids and teens. That compared with 1.2 percent for white children, the findings showed. For those with type 2 diabetes, there was a corresponding 21%, 46%, and 48% reduction in the same outcomes.
When it came to deaths during the study period, people with type 1 diabetes had similar reductions in the number of deaths compared to controls. There was no significant difference in the rate of hospitalization for heart failure in patients with type 1 diabetes compared to controls; there was a 29% reduction in hospitalization for heart failure in patients with type 2 diabetes compared to controls (HR 0.71; 95%CI 0.69 to 0.73).
"We believe the changes observed in our study most likely reflect a combination of advances in clinical care for patients with diabetes", said study author Dr. Aidin Rawshani.
The second study provided some positive news, however, detailing Swedish researchers looking into the incidence of heart disease and stroke in both types of diabetes, finding that there was actually a drop seen.
"In Sweden, the adherence to prescription and achievement of therapeutic targets is really quite good, not just for hemoglobin A1c, but for cholesterol management, blood-pressure management, and smoking cessation", he said.
The number of diabetes cases has surged dramatically in the last decade.
The project also promotes the means and tools that aid in battling this disease, with emphasis on preventive measures, early symptom detection, and a healthy lifestyle. The overall unadjusted estimated incidence rates of type 1 diabetes rose by 1.4% annually (from 19.5 cases per 100,000 youth per year in 2002-03 to 21.7 cases per 100,000 youth per year in 2011-12). These are all going to contribute mostly to non-cardiovascular mortality. To stay alive, someone with type 1 diabetes must replace that insulin through injections.
The rate of new diagnosed cases of type 2 diabetes rose much more sharply in females (6.2 percent) than in males (3.7 percent) ages 10-19.
In an editorial accompanying the current paper-as well as a second study by Elizabeth Myers-Davis, PhD (University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill) appearing in the same issue-Julie Ingelfinger, MD, and John Jarcho, MD, both deputy editors of the New England Journal of Medicine, note that the incidence of diabetes continues to increase in young people and new approaches are needed to reduce its burden on public health.